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Nuclear Energy Pros and Cons

Below you will find a nuclear energy pros and cons list, which covers the most important aspects of typical nuclear power plants.

There are 104 commercial nuclear power plants in the United States producing a whopping 806.2 TWh of electricity, in other words about 20 % of the entire electricity generation (2008). There is no doubt that the potential of nuclear energy is huge, but there are also downsides.

Nuclear energy pros and cons

Before we get further into the pros and cons list, what exactly is nuclear energy? The basic gist is this: By separating an atom into two lighter atoms, there is a net loss of mass. This mass is not exactly lost, but rather transformed into massive amounts of energy. This is what is referred to as nuclear fission. By controlling these reactions we can harness the energy.

I’ve made a separate article going deeper into how we harness nuclear energy called Nuclear. If this is not entirely clear yet; you might want to consider reading this before you start with the pros and cons list below.

Advantages of Nuclear Energy


1 Relatively Low Costs

The initial construction costs of nuclear power plants are large. On top of this, when the power plants first have been built, we are left with the costs to enrich and process the nuclear fuel (e.g. uranium), control and get rid of nuclear waste, as well as the maintenance of the plant.  The reason this is under advantages is that nuclear energy is cost-competitive. Generating electricity in nuclear reactors is cheaper than electricity generating from oil, gas and coal, not to speak of the renewable energy sources!

2 Base Load Energy

Nuclear power plants provide a stable base load of energy. This can work synergistic with renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. The electricity production from the plants can be lowered when good wind and solar resources are available and cranked up when the demand is high.

3 Low Pollution

It is in most cases more beneficial, in terms of the climate crisis, to replace other energy harnessing methods we use today with nuclear power. The environmental effects of nuclear power are relatively light compared to those. However, nuclear waste is potential harmful for both humans and the environment.

4 Thorium

Reports show that with the yearly fuel consumption of today’s nuclear power plants, we have enough uranium for 80 years. It is possible to fuel nuclear power plants with other fuel types than uranium. Thorium, which also is a greener alternative, has lately been given an increased amount of attention. China, Russia and India have already plans to start using thorium to fuel their reactors in the near future.

It looks like nuclear fuel is of good availability if we combine the reserves of the different types together. In other words, hopefully enough time for us to find cost-competitive greener ways of harnessing energy.

5 Sustainable?

Is nuclear energy renewable or non-renewable? This is a good question. By definition, nuclear energy is not a renewable energy source. As I mentioned above, there is a limited amount of fuel for nuclear power available. On the other hand, you could argue that nuclear energy is potentially sustainable by the use of breeder reactors and fusion reactors. Nuclear fusion is the holy grail of harnessing energy. If we can learn to control atomic fusion, the same reactions as those that fuel the sun, we have practically unlimited energy. At the moment, these two methods both have serious challenges that need to be dealt with if we are to start using them on larger scale.

6 High Energy Density

It is estimated the amount of energy released in a nuclear fission reaction is ten million times greater than the amount released in burning a fossil fuel atom (e.g. oil and gas). Therefore, the amount of fuel required in a nuclear power plant is much smaller compared to those of other types of power plants.

Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy

While the advantages of using nuclear energy seem to be many, there are also plenty of negative effects of nuclear energy. The following are the most important ones:

1 Accidents Happen

The radioactive waste can possess a threat to the environment and is dangerous for humans. We all remember the Chernobyl accident, where the harmful effects of nuclear radiation on humans can even be witnessed today. Estimates conclude that somewhere between 15 000 and 30 000 people lost their lifes in the Chernobyl aftermath and more than 2.5 million Ukrainians are still struggling with health problems related to nuclear waste.

Just last year, on March 18, a major nuclear crisis happenend again in Japan. While the casualties were not as high as with the Chernobyl accident, the environmental effects were disasterous.

History shows that we can never really protect us 100% against these disasters. Accidents do happen.

2 Radioactive Waste

Does nuclear power cause air pollution? The nuclear power plants emit negligible amounts, if any, carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.  However, the processes in the nuclear fuel chain such as mining, enrichment and waste management does.

There are many arguments both for and against nuclear power. All in all I would say that the future of nuclear power looks promising. With new generations of reactors, potential major breakthroughs such as nuclear fusion, the methods we use to harness nuclear energy will get better in the next coming years. The question is: Do we need nuclear power or are the renewables a better choice?

If you want to read more on nuclear energy, go to the nuclear category in the top menu. To get a broader picture on the non-renewables and their importance in today’s society read Non-Renewable Energy Sources –  Advantages and Disadvantages. Feel free to leave comments below.


Comments - 71

William Monahan

Greetings Mathias,
Would you consider including information on your website that would allow for APA formated citation of the valuable information and material you research, compile, compose and present on it?
For college students like myself.

July 13, 2012 9:02 pm Reply


Hi William

That`s a great idea and it will be implemented in the near future!

July 13, 2012 9:30 pm Reply

Miranda Amis

Actually, MLA format is much more efficient for highschool students, seeing how everything we have to do is in MLA format.

January 27, 2014 3:09 pm Reply

Oh Ghee Ling Amy

Having interviews with countries who have used nuclear energy sucessfully or with hiccups can learn risk management of nuclear meltdown and better alternatives to handle accidents at nuclear energy plants with remotely controlled robotics and RPA once accidents happen. A shared nuclear plant facility for different countries will be useful for clean energy use. The raw material for nuclear energy can be sourced from other plants.

April 21, 2020 7:27 pm Reply


For high school students such as myself, essays in APA format are needed for our class. Thank you for the Infromation! It really helped me with my essay.

December 18, 2012 8:27 pm Reply

kate yolin

yes i belive so!!

January 14, 2014 1:08 am Reply


Either that or Harvard

April 6, 2020 10:20 pm Reply


If i may know, on what year this article was published?

August 21, 2012 11:06 am Reply


This article was published early 2012.

August 21, 2012 3:12 pm Reply


Thanks a lot sir.

August 25, 2012 3:09 pm Reply

kate yolin

no problem

January 14, 2014 1:09 am Reply

Kali yule

i like this website

November 12, 2012 4:44 pm Reply


Man…. all these comments are so respectful. Is this even the internet???

February 4, 2013 9:16 pm Reply


Surprisingly yes.

January 26, 2014 5:35 pm Reply


There’s no hipsters here, so nope. 😛
But not all of the internet is bad…

March 24, 2014 5:23 pm Reply


i’m doing an essay on disadvantages of nuclear energy.. i just want to ask either all power plant use water as condenser or not??

February 17, 2013 2:05 pm Reply


I myself am doing a research paper on nuclear power. A great book to read is “Nuclear Power: Th Future of Nuclear Power” by James A. Mahaffey. He goes in great detail about different generation reactors and how each function differently and different components they use.

February 20, 2013 9:05 pm Reply


can I ask where you studied or what do you do? I’m doing a research paper and i want to use this information and i need to “briefly say” who you are or why you are qualified to speak on this.
A reply would help a lot

April 15, 2013 3:19 am Reply


Hello Mathias,
This is a really good source for my energy project. I’m doing nuclear power and this helps me with the pros and cons for it.
Thanks a lot.

October 25, 2013 12:01 pm Reply


Me and my group are doing nuclear power too!

February 26, 2014 8:03 pm Reply

Alainna Aparicio

Good source!:)

October 30, 2013 8:11 pm Reply


Thanks so much! can you make more pros though??

December 6, 2013 3:24 pm Reply


This is a terrific article and was a great source for my alternative energy project. Thanks so much for creating this!

December 18, 2013 7:21 pm Reply


You guys are way too nice. Whats wrong with these people? Argh!!

February 27, 2014 6:08 pm Reply


No no no

March 11, 2014 3:44 pm Reply


What is the MLA format?

April 22, 2014 4:32 am Reply

kit kat 2020

this helped me a lot thank you

May 6, 2014 3:32 pm Reply

Jessica Lee

Thanks!! This helped a lot on my debate competition:)

May 11, 2014 1:03 am Reply

Jakob bob

This helped me a lot with my report

September 15, 2014 2:53 pm Reply

Owen Wheatley (14)

Due to the limited amount of uranium on our planet(the fuel for a nuclear power plant) , it is expected to be an exhausted resource by 2035-2065. There for nuclear power is only a short term solution to a long term problem. Although, it can buy us time to develop new ways of creating and harnessing energy, or evolve our current methods.

September 25, 2014 9:21 pm Reply


Official reports show not more than 60 people have died due to Chernobyl. You write 15000-30000… Where did you get these numbers from?

October 2, 2014 7:50 am Reply

James Franklin

Not just uranium is used to fuel reactors, many plants use plutonium for example.

November 5, 2014 8:10 pm Reply


Well, 2 people died AT the accident, 28-29 dying a few weeks after in the hospital. Chernobyl has long term affects that killed many. The 600,000 – 800,000 firefighters working on the case have all died or came across health problems because of the large amounts of radiation the plant is giving off. So basically the disaster had long term effects on the people around it, deteriorating health.

December 15, 2014 11:12 am Reply


this is a very nice safe site with no useless swearing- thank you for this awesome site so i can finish this grade six lesson study thing 🙂

January 8, 2015 9:40 pm Reply

Samson Damilola

Can you kindly assist me with the “implications of changing from HEU to LEU fuel” for the case of the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR)

January 18, 2015 1:06 pm Reply

Nicole Sanders

Should nuclear energy be used as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels?

January 20, 2015 7:28 pm Reply


Great source

January 28, 2015 4:48 pm Reply


Nuclear power sucks

February 3, 2015 12:00 pm Reply


i love nukes

February 3, 2015 12:02 pm Reply

Lewin turner


February 5, 2015 3:03 pm Reply


Hey Dude

February 12, 2015 1:46 am Reply


February 12, 2015 12:14 pm Reply


once apon a time there was a man named Geoff. Geoff was a very kind man and always said hello to the children on his street and in the park. then one day he had a brilliant idea! he decided to give the children treats; like chocolate and peanut butter. he even invited them into his van with the temptation of puppies. after weeks and weeks of doing this a near by nuclear reactor exploded and he got cancer and died and the children lived happily ever after as mutated freaks outcast by all.

February 12, 2015 12:18 pm Reply

xavier Rangel

also this is a good website keep the work up who ever made this!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

February 17, 2015 6:38 pm Reply


Just out of curiosity, how many different types of reactors (both fission and fusion) exist in the world today?

March 1, 2015 1:56 am Reply

Samuel H Duncan

Actually only about 30 people were killed from the Chernobyl because they ran straight into the nuclear reactor to throw material to stop the spread of radioactive material going more airborn. Yes there was spike in cancer cases in childern and women in a large radius around the the plant that could be linked to the accident, but it was not nearly as bad as the on averge 11000 deaths cause by just airborn coal emissions. Also, coal emission could be link to much larger accounts of risen cancer risk/cases, and that not just arounds that area where the fuel is burned its is polluting the world-wide with coals nasty bi products of dangerous carcigens and heavy metals.

March 6, 2015 3:04 pm Reply

Samuel H Duncan

Annual coal emmissions*

March 6, 2015 3:05 pm Reply


Notice that the accidents mentioned were not in the US? The health and safety protocols of our country wouldn’t allow those accidents to happen. Those were because of human carelessness, including overriding of the emergency shutdown system for an experiment. That would never be allowed in the United States.

March 30, 2015 7:36 pm Reply

Abbie Newcomb

Thank you guys so much!!!!! This helped alot in myscience class. You guys are awesome

March 31, 2015 11:37 am Reply


Although I doubt this helps now, if you click on his name next to when the article was last updated it will bring you to his google+ page where if you click on the about tab, under education you will see he studied Energy and Environmental Engineering at the University of Auckland.

April 19, 2015 7:01 pm Reply

James Place

I think APA format is much more useful for highschool students and college students and en some middle cshool students and APA is a great way for this to be written.

April 20, 2015 5:36 pm Reply

James Place

i enjoyed this information because it was very useful for a class project done in my eigth grade class and was very useful and reliable.

April 20, 2015 5:38 pm Reply


I agree I am doing an essay on energy and chose to go against nuclear energy.

April 20, 2015 8:20 pm Reply


I chose the nuclear crises in Japan. Just so you know not to be rude or a know it all but I found that the crises actually happened on March 16, 2011.

April 20, 2015 8:31 pm Reply


on the night that reactor four exploded in the chernobyl power plant, around 60 people were killed. in the long term, around 15000-30000 people were killed in the aftereffects.

May 3, 2015 7:37 pm Reply


I’m pretty sure the comments are filtered.

May 6, 2015 10:08 pm Reply


Not all hipsters are mean. Don’t be so stereotypical.

May 11, 2015 8:18 pm Reply


great! really helped me with my homework. Comments were strangely good too, obviously shows that no idiots use the site! 🙂

May 12, 2015 6:32 pm Reply

michiee ibarra

I am doing an essay on Nuclear Power essay on my own opinion about this but I have no idea how to start this essay, I don’t even know what to write about I really need some help.

May 12, 2015 8:42 pm Reply



Can you please post your sources so I may show my teacher this is a credible source.

May 20, 2015 10:23 pm Reply

Starbuckz iz life

OMG this site is tots my fav…….like yaaaasss boo

May 21, 2015 5:56 pm Reply


This helped me alot with my essay, thank you so much! 🙂

November 2, 2015 3:11 pm Reply

The master of the elephants

it was ok… i guess…………………………

March 11, 2020 5:01 pm Reply

Your Name

This helped me win my debate

April 6, 2020 1:38 pm Reply


Nuclear power is not sustainable. It rejects 72% of heat generated in nuclear reactor to environment that directly heats the atmosphere which is greater than a coal based thermal power plant of same capacity. Nuclear and thermal power plants both heats atmosphere/environment, during initial days of global development, it was jointly agreed to run /operate these sources of power till environment permits without affecting population. Now this global warming has has changed our world’s climate and we are now most affected in following ways.
Effects of Global warming and climate change:
1. Sea level rise
2. Wild fires spreading to more places and cases.
3. Ice caps at both poles of the earth have melted away.
4. Glaciers on high mountain ranges and poles have melted away.
5. Unusual raining, land slides, flooding continues killing people.
6. Drought conditions in many parts of the earth created famine conditions
7. Now snow fed rivers like Ganges, Brahmaputra, Sind, Nile, Mississippi etc in the world will run dry 8 months in a year. Water was available throughout the year in these snow fed rivers.
8. Super cyclones, typhoons, thunder storms
& lightning,tsunamis will visit earth’s surface very frequently.
9. Uncertain climatic conditions will damage standing crops and many lands will be unsuitable for any agricultural production.
10. Few crops ( say, mango) are seen missing from seasonal blossoming and bearing fruits due to irregular climatic conditions.
11. Epidemics like corona virus will visit and kill millions of people, keeping all living people unproductive in lock down as in March & April,2020.
12. Ambient air temperature will be maintaining very high to bear a normal life on the earth.
13. Entire earth’s surface will face a changed and harsh weather conditions unsuitable for human life.
14. Due to global warming and climate change, the prevailing climate is favoring creation and breed of Corona virus type epidemic.
15. A cool environment is most preferred as it was 100 years back, say during 1920 AD.
The last but not least, corona virus has surfaced its havoc and now killing millions people on the earth. Voluntarily all power producers nuclear and fossil fuel should come forward and stop their running power units in phased manner to save people and the earth.Because, they are only knowing what harms they are doing with the environment
Since the operation of these two sources of power is unable to maintain the temperature of the earth and globe/ environment ,with above disastrous consequences , these two sources of power are not sustainable.
Thanks and regards Radhashyam Muduli
Bhubaneswar, INDIA. Engineer/ Scientist

April 20, 2020 6:58 am Reply


Thank you so much. So far, this is the only website that actually helped me understand the pros and cons of nuclear energy. 🙂

April 22, 2020 9:33 am Reply

Firestar Godcat

About thorium:

May 6, 2020 8:11 pm Reply


These facts really help me. Thanks

May 13, 2020 5:42 am Reply


I need an economic disadvantage of nuclear energy please can you help ?

May 27, 2020 7:08 am Reply

Nathan Breet

Is this site a credible source? I am sorry for asking but I need to use the information for a research project and I need to know. Also, how should I cite this page as a source?(format)

June 15, 2020 5:04 pm Reply

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